A war of attrition, with few advances, and no clear definition of victory for either side.

Three months after Russia invaded Ukraine in a campaign his generals promised would be over in just a few days, Europe’s bloodiest war in two decades is bogged down in what looks increasingly like a war of attrition, with no end in sight and few successes on the battlefield.

There has been no quick victory for Russian President Vladimir Putin’s powerful forces, no rout that would allow the Kremlin to control most of Ukraine and establish a puppet government.

Instead, Russian troops bogged down on the outskirts of Kyiv and other big cities amid stiff Ukrainian resistance. Convoys of Russian armor stalled on long stretches of highway. Troops ran out of supplies and fuel, becoming easy targets, and in three months Russia has lost at least 15,000 soldiers, more than it lost in the nine-year occupation of Afghanistan.

A little over a month into the invasion, Russia effectively acknowledged the failure of its blitz and pulled troops back from areas near Kyiv, declaring a shift of focus to the eastern industrial region of the Donbas, where Moscow-backed separatists have been fighting Ukrainian forces since 2014.

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